TYPES OF MBA PROGRAM


TYPES OF MBA PROGRAM
Followings are the type of MBA Program
1. The one-year MBA Program
2. The Two-year MBA Program

3. The part-time MBA program
4. The online MBA program
5. The executive MBA program
6. The specialized MBA
7. The corporate MBA

The one-year MBA Program
One-year programs are dramatically different from their two-year counterparts. They usually have very strict requirements in regards to work background and academic training. The program length is typically eleven to sixteen months. Students do not work full-time because school is considered the first priority. Yet, the advantage of this kind of MBA reaches far beyond classroom instruction through the development of a powerful and cohesive network of MBA colleagues. In addition, a highly specialized program can simultaneously build upon your current career or industry specialty. Finally, the full-time program typically includes extensive career placement and counselling services, professional groups and clubs, and experienced industry guest lecturers. However, the one-year program has one draw back in that there are no extended breaks between semesters, which curtails internship opportunities.
The Two-year MBA Program
A typical two-year MBA program consists of four semesters.  Classes are taken over the course of two academic years. Most students take three-to-four-month internships between academic years. During the first year, students complete the required curriculum. The second year focuses on elective courses with specialization in a particular area of interest. This MBA program is ideal both for professionals who are changing careers and for those who seek to increase their potential in the same field. The advantages of a two-year MBA are that they accept a variety of academic backgrounds, and the internships encourage the development of new skills. Most full-time MBA programs also have extensive career placement and counselling services, professional groups and clubs, and experienced guest lecturers.  Bear in mind that this type of MBA is designed for people who have well-defined career objectives and the resources to devote themselves to studying full-time.

The part-time MBA program
Designed for working professionals, most part-time MBA candidates work full-time during the day and attend classes in the evening. The part-time program is particularly appealing to those who wish to advance their existing career. It can also be advantageous for professionals who have already developed a network of business relationships that can facilitate a change of careers.
Moreover, this type of MBA allows you to improve existing skills or develop new ones without interrupting your current position. Tuition assistance and student loans may also be available. However, frequent work-related travel or relocation could potentially be an obstacle to completing this kind of MBA.


The online MBA program
New technologies have made distance learning an increasingly popular option.  The on-line program offers a core curriculum with a limited number of electives. The programs can take up to eight years to complete, though students generally finish in three or four years. Coursework uses e-mail, computer conferencing, chat rooms, on-line bulletin boards, and sound and video clips. Be sure to verify that the program is accredited so companies will consider it valid. The distance-learning programs require less time commitment than other MBAs and, it offers more geographic flexibility. Class work can also be scheduled around personal and professional commitments. Finally, tuition is much lower for an on-line MBA than for traditional campus-based programs. However you should not forget that this program offers limited contact with fellow classmates, therefore, this MBA is not a good choice if you prefer an interactive environment. Finally, few distance-learning programs are available because this technology and form of learning is relatively new. Nevertheless, distance-learning MBA programs have become commonplace as an increasing number of business professionals and busy executives opt to earn their degree on-line.



The executive program

This MBA is generally designed for senior managers with at least seven years of business experience. Courses tend to focus on global business issues and strategies. The program is generally considered full-time and can take up to 24 months to complete with almost no opportunity to specialize. All students take the same general management curriculum simultaneously. In addition, Executive MBAs earn their degrees briskly, in two years or less, much faster than part-time students. However, this type of MBA requires a high level of commitment not only from the students, but also their families and employers. Most students put in 80 to 100 hours a week between their jobs and school.


The specialized MBA
As business professionals become more attuned to their own interests, they often want to delve deeper into a specific field to hone their competence. There are MBA programs that focus on certain industries such as healthcare and hi-tech. A tremendous benefit of the specialized MBA is often derived from the expertise of course instructors and even fellow classmates. Typically, instructors for specialized MBA courses, such as e-business, will have in-depth experience in the field and understand industry nuances. A specialized MBA helps professionals stay on the cutting edge of their chosen field, but it also provides essential management tools learned from a traditional MBA program. The specialized MBA is only for individuals firmly entrenched in their careers, as the degree is highly specific, therefore inadaptable to other fields.


The corporate MBA
The MBA, in which courses actually occur on company premises, is a new type of program, which can be offered to a significant number of employees. For instance, the business school HEC in Montréal now offers this relatively new MBA. Participating companies have specific requirements such choosing its MBA candidates. The MBA program director at  HEC Montreal, Jean Talbot, explains: “…companies are selecting their own MBA students. They have the power of money because they are the ones who are financing the program. Therefore, the 3-year program MBA requires an agreement between the school and the company”. Concerning the Pratt and Whitney programs with HEC Montréal, interested candidates are usually engineers and accountants. In brief, this MBA lacks student diversity; in fact, it is usually offered to a specific department in a company. The benefits are that the school offers training specifically adapted to the company’s need. In addition, the school  adjusts its schedule to the company’s timetable. Finally, this MBA creates a motivated and united group of workers and an interesting network.

WHY SHOULD A STUDENT PURSUE MBA


Ask a young student who is about to complete his/her graduation and step out in the world, as to what are his future plans. Some would plan to find a job and settle down, while most of them would want to go for post graduation program, especially MBA program, irrespective of their graduation degree. There are a large number of engineering, medical, Arts and many other such graduation courses to pursue management courses. This trend used to make me wonder, I used to think why anyone from a different educational background would take up MBA for further studies.
However, reading different articles on the net and educational magazine have pacified my curiosity about the increased in the number of management aspirants. MBA courses open up innumerable avenues and create unlimited career opportunity for the person. In today’s age of cut-throat competition, every organization; whether it is a public sector enterprise or a private corporation needs to give outstanding performance to sustain in the market and make profit. This is the why any organization prefers to hire a management professional.
Knowledge imparted in MBA program develops managerial skills of the learner, which makes them highly employable any company, as these skills provide them essential acumen for dealing with real-time situations relating to management and resolution of problems. It not only equips the pursuer to enact a managerial role but also makes easy for them to grab the core responsibilities of any organization.
MBA programs are an all-in-one educational program that focuses on providing holistic knowledge about every function right from administration and handling finances to the basics of operations that is required to make the management of any organization hassle free and smooth, helping the executives and other top officials to concentrate on formulating policies that can boost the chances of the firm to get maximum profits.
Corporate world is full of unexpected risks, which only a person with adequate expertise and knowledge about the functional areas of various industries can manage and only MBA course can give them the acumen to understand the nature of the unexpected business world. Therefore, management professionals become highly employable for large corporations as well as for the small and medium scale industries.
A management degree gives a head start to the career of a fresher. An MBA program makes the individual an expert of the functions related to the smooth functioning of any company. This proficiency helps an MBA professional to climb up the corporate ladder quickly as compared to his/her peers or colleagues who lacks the required aptitude. According to a recent survey, high performing successful MBAs are more likely to reach top management levels of Fortune 500 companies and other corporate areas.
One of the biggest advantages that an MBA course gives a good salary package that a normal post graduates are not offered. It is usually seen that a student with above average grades gets starting salary between 12000 to 15000 which is quite a good amount as compared to the other graduates.
Thus, MBA program has manifold advantages, which makes it so popular among the people from every age group right from 20 to 50 who dreams to have a successful career.

How to make a MBA Project?

Making a MBA Project is very creative work. MBA students must include all the important aspects related to the topics in the project. Making a good and attractive project is not an easy work.

As getting an MBA degree requires a lot of pain and struggle, it is essential to undertake many projects, during the course of time. But, creating a fulfilling MBA Project report is not an easy task at all. It requires day and night of hard work as well as a lot of time and research. And after completing the project, making a project report is mandatory. The very idea of making a project report leaves an MBA student clueless. On the other hand, this report is the only way of making an examiner aware of what you are actually trying to convey through your project.


Project report actually reflects, what MBA students are trying to achieve through their project report. This report brings out the individualistic views of the student on the project as well as their knowledge gained from the whole experience. It makes it easier for the examiners to make out that whether the student has actually worked on the project or not. So, it is requisite for a student to create a fulfilling MBA project report.

Followings are the things a student must keep in his mind while preparing a project report for MBA: -
  1. First and the foremost step is to present the facts related to the project and validate them. Examine the impact of the conditions and the events.
  2. The project should sound relevant to the examiner. Therefore, highlight why you undertook the project and make it clear through your project that you took the project because it is related to your field of interest.
  3. Your report should ascertain what all you have learnt throughout the year.
  4. Meet and discuss the project with your advisor. He can surely help you in  writing a good project report. In case you are still doubtful regarding how your MBA project report actually looks then you can even get assistance from the experts online. They can tell you about what else you can include in your report and which things you can exclude to make the report more presentable.
  5. You can search for information online as it is an open platform where you can get everything and anything related to your report. Proper research and evaluation plays a vital role in actually deciding how effective your project report is.
  6. Dont try to make your project report very lengthy. Try to cover each of aspect of related topic in brief.
  7. Take sugesstions from your teacher and senior students.

MBA project report should sound relevant to the examiner and should throw light on your experience of making the project. And make sure that you don't include statistical tool's history, whereas include the name of the ones who helped you in making your MBA project report.
I hope this will help MBA students to prepare their project report.

LIST OF MBA PROJECTS


LIST OF MBA PROJECT

  1. A PROJECT REPORT ON THE MOTIVATION OF THE EMPLOYEES OF SBI LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED.
  2. A PROJECT ON“WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT &ANALYSIS OF BALANCE SHEET” ATRESESRCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE FOR IRON AND STEEL (RDCIS),RANCHI
  3. A PROJECT ON FUNCTION OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT IN HEAVY ENGINEERING CORPORATION, RANCHI 
  4. A PROJECT REPORT ON MARKETING OF SECONDARY & BY-PRODCUTS IN BSL, BOKARO, JHARKHAND
  5. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF SWASTIK FRUIT P.V.T LTD.  & SWASTIK AQUA P.V.T LTD, RANCHI, JHARKHAND
  6. ORGANISATION STUDY AND  PROCESS OF REPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL BUDGET PREPARED AT RESESRCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE FOR IRON AND STEEL(SAIL),RANCHI
  7. A PROJECT REPORT ON “HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – EMPLOYEE RELATIONS”  IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN KISHORE PUMPS PVT. LTD, GREAVES COTTON LTD., KINETIC ENGINEERING LTD.
  8. A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ON KOTAK MAHINDRA GROUP
  9. A SUMMER PLACEMENT REPORT ON HDFC STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED.
  10. A SUMMER PLACEMENT REPORT ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT HYDERABAD DIVISION OF HAL
  11. A REPORT ON “POTENTIAL OF LIFE INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN SURAT MARKET OF KOTAK LIFE INSURANCE.
  12. A PROJECT REPORT ON EMPLOYEES SATISFACTION ON SOCIAL WELFARE FACILITIES IN HEAVY ENGINEERING CORPORATION, RANCHI 
  13. PROJECT REPORT ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT  SYSTEM DEVELOPED FOR NATIONAL INFORMATICS CENTRE (NIC) NEW DELHI.
  14. A SUMMER PROJECT/INTERNSHIP REPORT ON RETAIL STORE OPERATIONS AT RELIANCE RETAIL LTD
  15. PROJECT REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL RELATION SYSTEM IN CENTRAL COALFIELDS LIMITED (CCL), RANCHI (A SUBSIDIARY OF COAL INDIA LIMITED).
  16. A PROJECT REPORT ON TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT AT   BONANZA PORTFOLIO LIMITED, RANCHI
  17. A REPORT ON EVALUATION OF CONSULTANCY SERVICES RENDERED IN-HOUSE   AND FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF NEW PROJECT DONE AT STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED (SAIL).
  18. A PROJECT REPORT ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SECURITY&INTELLIGENCE SERVICES (INDIA) LTD RANCHI.

IF ANY ONE WANT PROJECT ON ANY TOPIC RELATING TO MBA PLEASE FEEL FREE TO CONTACT ME.

TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION USED BY SBI LIFE INSURANCE FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES


TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION USED BY SBI LIFE INSURANCE FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES


Motivation involves the basic psychological reasons for a person's actions and behaviour. These are the forces or factors that cause a person to act a certain way or to behave in the manner that they do.


There are various types of motivations used by SBI Life Insurance for their Employees:

Ø  Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training and development.

Ø  Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking.

Ø  Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.

Ø  Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.

Ø  Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.

Ø  Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at universities or on the job training.

Ø  Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes.

Ø  It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures, elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures.

Ø  Provide an extended period of paid time off allows the employee to enjoy family recreation or travel

Ø  Organize wellness programs stress reduction, healthy eating and living clinics, weight-loss and smoking-cessation programs, exercise facilities, massage breaks, and health screenings.

Ø   In some cases, Employees are allowed to manage budgets, conduct performance appraisals, hire team members, and in rare instances, fire employees

Ø  Allows each employee to personally see how their involvement affects corporate success or failure.

Ø  Care should be taken, that punishment and penalties are used as a controlling technique and that they do not demotivation.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MOTIVATION, SATISFACTION, INSPIRATION AND MANIPULATION

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MOTIVATION, SATISFACTION, INSPIRATION AND MANIPULATION

Motivation refers to the drive and efforts to satisfy a want or goal, whereas satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. In contrast, inspiration is bringing about a change in the thinking pattern. On the other han
d Manipulation is getting the things done from others in a predetermined manner.

Hence, manipulation or external stimulus as well as inspiration or internal stimulus acts as carriers of either demotivation or motivation which in turn either results into dissatisfaction or satisfaction depending upon.

MOTIVATING DIFFERENT PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT WAYS


MOTIVATING DIFFERENT PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT WAYS


Motivation is not only in a single direction i.e. downwards. In the present scenario, where the workforce is more informed, more aware, more educated and more goal oriented, the role of motivation has left the boundaries of the hierarchy of management. Apart from superior motivating a subordinate, encouragement and support to colleague as well as helpful suggestions on the right time, even to the superior, brings about a rapport at various work levels. Besides, where workforce is self motivated, just the acknowledgement of the same makes people feel important and wanted.

Motivation is the key to performance improvement


Motivation is the key to performance improvement

There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink only if it's thirsty - so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus.

Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed.

Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus:

·         Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)

Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation.

There are broadly seven strategies for motivation. 
·         Positive reinforcement / high expectations
·         Effective discipline and punishment
·         Treating people fairly
·         Satisfying employees needs
·         Setting work related goals
·         Restructuring jobs
·         Base rewards on job performance

Essentially, there is a gap between an individual’s actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap.

Types of Motivation


Types of Motivation
Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant.
Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades)

1.    Incentives

An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa.

Need for Incentives
Man is a wanting animal. He continues to want something or other. He is never fully satisfied. If one need is satisfied, the other need arises. In order to motivate the employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers. Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives like ego-satisfaction, self-actualization and responsibility.
Types of Incentives
There are two type of Incentives : - Financial Incentives and Non-financial incentives

 Financial Incentives 
- Wages and Salaries.
- Bonus
- Medical reimbursement
- Insurance
- Housing facility
- Retirement benefits. 


Non-financial incentives
-  Competition
- Group recognition
- Job security
- Praise 
- Knowledge of result
-  Workers participation
-  Suggestion system          
- Opportunities for growth                                     
2.    Achievement
This is the motivation of a person to attain goals. The longing for achievement is inherent in every man, but not all persons look to achievement as their motivation. They are motivated by a goal. In order to attain that goal, they are willing to go as far as possible. The complexity of the goal is determined by a person's perception.
To us, the terms "simple" and "complex" are purely relative. What one person thinks is an easy goal to accomplish may seem to be impossible to another person. However, if your motivation is achievement, you will find that your goals will grow increasingly complex as time goes by.

3.    Socialization
Some people consider socialization to be their main motivation for actions. This is especially evident in the situation of peer pressure. Some people are willing to do anything to be treated as an equal within a group structure. The idea of being accepted among a group of people is their motivation for doing certain things.

4.    Fear motivation
When incentives do not work, people often turn to fear and punishment as the next tools. Fear motivation involves pointing out various consequences if someone does not follow a set of prescribed behavior. This is often seen in companies as working hand-in-hand with incentive motivation. Workers are often faced with a reward and punishment system, wherein they are given incentives if they accomplish a certain goal, but they are given punishments when they disobey certain policies.
5.    Change motivation
Sometimes people do things just to bring about changes within their immediate environment. Change motivation is often the cause of true progress. People just become tired of how things are and thus, think of ways to improve it.
             

Theories of Motivation

Theories of Motivation.Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979). Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclelland’s Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory; Abraham H Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J.S. Adam’s Equity Theory, Vrooms Expectation Theory, Two factor Theory.

McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory.According to McClelland’s there are three types of needs;

Need for Achievement (n Ach);This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts. They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement.

Need for Power (n Pow)It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it negative application tends autocratic style.

Need for affiliation (n Aff)It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of informal groups or social circle.

Behavioral Modification Theory;According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable past circumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his researches among rats and school children. He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could be strengthened by rewarding it at the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of this theory may be found in the installation of financial and non financial incentives.

More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. Withdrawal of reward incase of low standard work may also produce the desired result. However, researches show that it is generally more effective to reward desired behavior than to punish undesired behavior.

Abraham H Maslow Need Hierarchy or Deficient theory of Motivation.The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientists, A.H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the “Bible of Motivation”. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslow’s theory to interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations.

The crux of Maslow’s theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are lower ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values. As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. This resembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs at work in the individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs are active, they act as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators.
Hierarchy of needs; the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self actualization needs, as shown in order of their importance.
Self- Actualization
Ego Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
The above five basic needs are regarded as striving needs which make a person do things. The first model indicates the ranking of different needs. The second is more helpful in indicating how the satisfaction of the higher needs is based on the satisfaction of lower needs. It also shows how the number of person who has experienced the fulfillment of the higher needs gradually tapers off.
Physiological or Body Needs: - The individual move up the ladder responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job.

Safety: - The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment. The individual want to assured, once his bodily needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. The safety needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements.

Social needs: - Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group. In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group.

Ego or Esteem Needs: - These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition, respect and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem
e.g.; need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc. On the job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals.
Self realization or Actualization needs: - This upper level need is one which when satisfied provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented, directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to which an individual attains his personnel goal. This is the need which totally lies within oneself and there is no demand from any external situation or person.

J.S Adams Equity TheoryEmployee compares her/his job inputs outcome ratio with that of reference. If the employee perceives inequity, she/he will act to correct the inequity: lower productivity, reduced quality, increased absenteeism, voluntary resignation.

Vrooms Expectation TheoryVroom’s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Reward may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated.

Two Factor TheoryDouglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views; X assumptions are conservative in style Assumptions are modern in style.

X TheoryIndividuals inherently dislike work.
People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives.
People prefer to be directed

Y TheoryPeople view work as being as natural as play and rest
People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to
People learn to accept and seek responsibility.

Definition of Motivation


Definition of Motivation.According to Edwin B Flippo, “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward.

Significance of MotivationMotivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated.
1. The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise.
2. Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity.
3. The rates of labor’s turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low.
4. There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease.
5. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low.
6. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business.

Motivation Process1. Identification of need
2. Tension
3. Course of action
4. Result –Positive/Negative
5. Feed back

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